Eng. Dpt, 2500 Blvd Université, Sherbrooke J1K 2R1, QC, Canada
Phone: 819-821-8000 x62161
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INOLIVENT

 

Research in Liquid ventilation

Large literature data suggest a radical change in ventilator support by replacing the traditional gas mixture with a breathable liquid. This method, called liquid assisted ventilation, leads to the replacement of the air-liquid interface in the alveoli by a liquid-liquid interface. Since the 70s, perfluorocarbon liquids (PFC) have been identified as the best candidates to be used in liquid ventilation due to their high oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility. In addition, they are biochemically stable and bio-inert molecules, available as medical grade products including for respiratory use. During total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are completely filled with perfluorocarbon liquid while a dedicated device, called a liquid ventilator, must be used to periodically renew a liquid tidal volume in the lungs. A large number of preclinical studies involving various animal models have demonstrated clear potential medical benefits.

Liquid Ventilators at Sherbrooke

Total liquid ventilation (TLV) consists in completely filling the lungs with a breathable liquid and using a dedicated liquid ventilator to move the liquid into and from the lungs. Many efficient demonstrations of total liquid ventilation have been performed at Sherbrooke with different prototypes developed since 2001. For the liquid ventilator prototype to reach the readiness level for clinical applications, the objective is dual. From an engineering perspective, a liquid ventilator must ensure a safe and efficient ventilation with a breathable liquid (a PFC) in order to ensure patient oxygenation. From a medical perspective, it must resemble other conventional ventilators to be operated by clinicians in intensive care units. Hence, a liquid ventilator is a mechatronics system with sensors, actuators, and real-time automatic control to push and retrieve liquid in the flexible airways.

Following years of researches in liquid ventilator development for animal experiments, we have developed the most advanced prototypes of liquid ventilator. Inolivent-5, Inolivent-6 and Inoliovent-7 are actually functional in two laboratories. Their design are based on fundamental concepts developed for our third prototype, Inolivent-3 and by including our most recent knowledge on flow dynamics in liquid ventilation. The concepts have demonstrated their efficiency during animal experiments of different weights, from 1.5 Kg to more than 60 Kg.

 

The Team

Philippe Micheau, Eng., PhD,

Professor Philippe Micheau is specialized in mechatronics and control. He led the engineering aspects of the academic research group in liquid ventilation. He develops new technologies which radically changes the respiratory support by replacing medical air with a perfluorocarbon breathable liquid. He develops numerical models, control strategies and devices to ensure efficient and safe liquid breathing with a liquid ventilator.

Étienne Fortin-Pellerin, MD, Phd

Dr Fortin-Pellerin works with a neonatal ovine model to develop clinical indications of total liquid ventilation in collaboration with the INOLIVENT research group from the Université de Sherbrooke. His main focus is on treatment of the respiratory distress of the extremely premature infant. He uses invasive and non-invasive methodologies to study liquid ventilation impacts on the cardiovascular system in order to refine ventilation techniques.

Jean-Paul Praud, MD, PhD

Dr Praud is a pediatrician specialized in respiratory medicine. He is director of the Mother & Child Health Axis of the Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke and Head to the Respiratory Medicine Division, Department of Pediatrics. Dr Praud’ research interests are directly in line with his extensive clinical expertise in neonatal upper airway function, as well as his clinical activities which involve the daily care of infants affected with apneas of prematurity, apparently life-threatening events and the follow-up of families of sudden-infant-death-syndrome victims. He is the chairholder of the Canada Research Chair in Neonatal Respiratory Physiology

Jean-Yves Denaclara, MScA student in mechanics

Jean-Yves Denaclara is a student in a double-diploma mechanical engineering program with the University of Sherbrooke and the Ecole des Mines d’Alès (France). His research focus on the cooling system and his control in order to achieve a safe and “ultrafast” mild therapeutic hypothermia with a liquid ventilator.

Michael Sage, PhD Student in physiology

Michaël Sage is a PhD student in Physiology at the University of Sherbrooke under the supervision of Dr Fortin-Pellerin, Dr Jean-Paul Praud and Prof. Philippe Micheau. Since 2013, he’s been deeply involved in research on total liquid ventilation. He cumulates hundreds of hours of ventilation using Inolivent-6 on animal models from neonatal to adults. His expertise in molecular biology, hemodynamic and respiratory physiology contribute to the advancement of the knowledge in total liquid ventilation.

Wendy See. MSc student in physiology

Wendy See is currently pursuing a Master’s degree in Physiology at the University of Sherbrooke under the supervision of Dr Fortin-Pellerin and Prof. Philippe Micheau. She aims to establish an ovine model of extreme prematurity for the evaluation of total liquid ventilation in the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Publications

Nadeau, JY Denaclara, R. Tissier, H Walti, P Micheau, Patient-Specific Optimal Cooling Power Command for Hypothermia Induction by Liquid Ventilation, Control Engineering Practice, Vol 77, 109-117, 2018.

M. Sage, M Nadeau, C Foran-Choinière, J Mousseau, J Vandamme, C Berger, JS Tremblay-Roy, R Tissier, P Micheau, E Fortin-Pellerin, Assessing the impacts of total liquid ventilation on left ventricular diastolic function in a model of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, PLoS ONE 13(1) January 2018.

M Nadeau, M Sage, M Kohlhauer, J Mousseau, J Vandamme, E Fortin-Pellerin, JP Praud, R Tissier, H Walti, P Micheau. Optimal Control of Inspired Perfluorocarbon Temperature for Ultrafast Hypothermia Induction by Total Liquid Ventilation in Adult Patient Model, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2017.

M Sage, M Nadeau, M Kohlhauer, JP Praud, R Tissier, R Robert, H Walti and P Micheau. Effect of ultra-fast mild hypothermia using total liquid ventilation on hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics, Cryobiologie, 99-101, 2017.

M. Nadeau, M. Sage, M. Kohlhauer, j. Vandamme, J. Mousseau, R. Robert, R. Tissier, J.-P. Praud, H. Walti et P. Micheau, Thermal Dynamics in Newborn and Juvenile Models Cooled by Total Liquid Ventilation, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 63(7), 1483-1491, 2016.

M. Nadeau, P. Micheau, R. Robert, O. Avoine, R. Tissier, P.S. Germim, J. Vandamme, JP Praud, H. Walti, Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor, IEEE Trans.Biomed. Eng., 61(12), 2859-2868, Dec. 2014.

N. Samson, O. Avoine, H. Walti, P. Micheau, JP. Praud, The ovines, unique models for research into perinatal respiration, Revue Médecine Sciences Amérique, 14 p, 1(4), 2012.

A. Beaulieu, D. Bossé, P. Micheau, O. Avoine, JP Praud, H. Walti, Measurement of Fractional Order Model Parameters of Respiratory Mechanical Impedance in Total Liquid Ventilation, IEEE Trans. On Biomedical Engineering, 59(2):323-31, 2012.

O. Avoine, D. Bossé, B. Beaudry, A. Beaulieu, R. Albadine, JP Praud, R. Robert, P. Micheau and H. Walti, Total Liquid Ventilation efficacy in an Ovine Model of severe meconium aspiration syndrome, Critical Care Medicine, 39(5), 2011

A. Beaulieu, E. Foucault, P. Braud, P. Micheau, and P. Szeger, A flowmeter for unsteady liquid flow measurements, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 22(2), p. 131-137, 2011

D. Bossé, H. Walti, R. Robert, J. Lebon, O. Lesur, JP. Praud, and P. Micheau, Experimental validation of cardiac output measurement using transpulmonary thermodilution technique in neonatal Tidal Liquid Ventilation, ASAIO Journal, 56(6), 557-562, 2010

R. Robert, P. Micheau, O. Avoine, B. Beaudry, A. Beaulieu, H. Walti, A Regulator for Pressure Controlled Liquid Ventilation, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 57(9), 2267-2276, 2010

D. Bosse, A. Beaulieu, O. Avoine, P. Micheau, JP Praud, and H. Walti, Neonatal Total Liquid Ventilation: Is Low Frequency Forced Oscillation Technique Suitable for Respiratory Mechanics Assessment?, Journal of Applied Physiology, 109:501-510, 2010

ML. Costantino, P. Micheau, T. H. Shaffer, S. Tredici, MR. Wolfson, Clinical Design Functions: Round table discussions on bioengineering of liquid ventilators, American Society for Artificial Internal Organs Journal, May-Jun; 55(3):206-8, 2009.

R. Robert, P. Micheau, and H. Walti, Optimal expiratory volume profile in tidal liquid ventilation under steady state conditions, based on a symmetrical lung model, American Society for Artificial Internal Organs Journal, 55(1), 63-72, January/February 2009

R. Robert, P. Micheau, H. Walti, A Supervisor for Volume-Controlled Tidal Liquid Ventilator Using Independent Piston Pumps, Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, (2) 267-274, 2007

R. Robert, P. Micheau, S. Cyr, O. Lesur, J.P. Praud, H. Walti, Prototype of volume-controlled tidal liquid ventilator using independent piston pumps, American Society for Artificial Internal Organs Journal, 52(6):638-45, Nov-Dec 2006.

Publications in Collaboration with EnvA (France)

Since 2010, there is a research consortium agreement between UdeS and Inserm U955-3 at École Nationale Vétérinaire, Créteil, France. This is a strong research relation with a highly reputed research center in fast induction of hypothermia by total liquid ventilation under the direction of Renaud Tissier. His research group investigating the effect of ultra-fast hypothermia and liquid ventilation in critical situations such as shock, cardiac arrest and severe ischemic injuries. His laboratory operates Inolivent-5 and Inolivent-7 to perform animal experiments.

J Rambaud, F Lidouren, M Sage, M Kohlhauer, M Nadeau, E Fortin-Pellerin, P Micheau, L Zilberstein, N Mongardon, J-D Ricard, M Terada, P Bruneval, A Berdeaux, B Ghaleh, H Walti, R Tissier, Hypothermic total liquid ventilation after experimental aspiration-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, Annals of Intensive Care, 8:57, 2018

Kohlhauer M, Berdeaux A, Kerber RE, Micheau P, Ghaleh B, Tissier R. Liquid Ventilation for the Induction of Ultrafast Hypothermia in Resuscitation Sciences: A Review. The Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016 Jun;6(2):63-70, 2016.

N Mongardon, M Kohlhauer, F Lidouren, T. Hauet, S. Giraud, A. Hutin, B. Costes, C. Barau, P. Bruneval, P. Micheau, A. Cariou, G. Dhonneur, A. Berdeaux, B Ghaleh, R. Tissier, Protective effects of ultrafast hypothermia with total liquid ventilation during multi-organ failure induced by aortic cross-clamping”, accepted for publication in Anesthesia & Analgesia 123(3):659-69, 2016.

M. Kohlhauer et al, Hypothermic total liquid ventilation is highly protective through cerebral hemodynamic preservation and sepsis-like mitigation after asphyxial cardiac arrest, Critical Care Med, 43(10), 420-30, October 2015.

N. Mongardon, et al, Effet de l’hypothermie systémique par ventilation liquidienne totale au cours du choc par ischémie/reperfusion par clampage aortique chez le lapin, Annales Françaises d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation, Volume 33, Page A391, Sept. 2014.

N. Mongardon, et al (15 authors), Ultrafast whole body cooling induced by hypothermic total liquid ventilation attenuates shock after aortic cross clamping in rabbits, resuscitation, vol. 85, S97-S98, may 2014.

Thesis (in French):

Sage, M, Efficacité comparée du lavage pulmonaire thérapeutique par ventilation liquidienne totale et par solution diluée de surfactant exogène dans un modèle ovin de syndrome d’inhalation méconiale, Master Thesis, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2016.
Nadeau, M, Induction Optimale de l’Hypothermie par Ventilation Liquidienne Totale : Validation Experimentale et Projection a l’Humain. PhD Thesis, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2016.
Vandamme, J. Estimation de la pression alveolaire et de la compliance du systeme respiratoire en ventilation liquidienne totale. Master Thesis, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2015.
Mousseau, J. Developpement d’un simulateur de poumons reproduisant in vitro le collapsus expiratoire en ventilation liquidienne totale. Master Thesis, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2015.
Nadeau, M, Induction rapide, contrôlée par capteur de température virtuel, d’une hypothermie en ventilation liquidienne totale, Master Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke, 2013.
Avoine, O, Ventilation liquidienne totale et syndrôme d’aspiration méconiale sévère, Master Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke, 2010
Bossé, D, Étude de la mécanique respiratoire par la technique des oscillations forcées au cours de la ventilation liquidienne totale, Master Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke, 2009
Beaudry, B, L’évaluation et l’optimisation des échanges gazaux dans un oxygénateur de respirateur liquidien, Master Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke, 2009.
Robert, R, Modélisation numérique et stratégie de commande du débit expiratoire pour éviter le collapsus des voies respiratoires en ventilation liquidienne totale, PhD Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke, 2007.
Lebon, J, Conséquence hémodynamique de l’application de la ventilation liquidienne totale dans un modèle expérimental de syndrôme de détresse respiratoire aigue chez l’agneau nouveau-né, Master Thesis, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2007
Robert, R, Optimisation d’un ventilateur liquidien, Master Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke, 2003.
Mazouzi, M, Développement d’un contrôleur pour un ventilateur liquidien, Master Thesis, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2001

Media

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfBM-tMlhL8

TASS Sience and Space, Liquid Breathing Technology cans save people

La détresse respiratoire du nouveau né, Radio Canada (in French), 2012.

Chapter of book

P. Micheau, R. Robert, B. Beaudry, A. Beaulieu, M. Nadeau, O. Avoine, M-E Rochon, J-P Praud, H Walti, Chapter: A Liquid ventilator prototype for total liquid ventilation preclinical studies, Bioengineering, In Tech Publisher, 2011.

 

Patents

M. Nadeau, P. Micheau, R. Robert, H. Walti, O. Avoine, JP Praud, Indirect measurement in a total liquid ventilation system, WO 2014205548 A1, 2013.

Robert, S. Cyr, P. Micheau, H. Walti, J-P Praud, Method and apparatus for conducting total liquid ventilation with control of residual volume and ventilation cycle profile, US 7726311 B2, 2002.

 

Conferences

P Micheau, M Nadeau, R Tissier and H Walti, Direct Optimal Control of Breathable Liquid Temperature for Human Cooling, IFAC, Toulouse, France, July 2017

Fortin-Pellerin E, Sage M, Micheau P, Mousseau J, Vandamme J, Nadeau M, Praud JP, Adler A. Monitoring Ventilation and Perfusion in the Liquid-Ventilated Lung. 18th International Conference on Biomedical Applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography, New Hampshire, USA, 2017

Sage M*, Adler A, Forand-Choinière C*, Micheau P, Praud JP, Fortin-Pellerin E. Assessment of perflubron pulmonary distribution during the filling phase of total liquidventilation. Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting, San Francisco, USA, 2017

Sage M*, Forand-Choinière C*, Berger C, Nadeau M, Mousseau J, Vandamme J, Micheau P, Fortin-Pellerin E. Assessing the Impact of Total Liquid Ventilation on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in a NeonatalLamb Model of Induced Surfactant Deficiency. Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting, San Francisco, USA, 2017.

P. Micheau, Ventilateur Liquidien Inducteur ultra-rapide d’hypothermie, FFQIS, Montreal, 2016.

M Nadeau, M Sage, J Vandamme, J Mousseau , M Kohlhauer, J-P Praud, E Fortin-Pellerin, R Tissier, H Walti et P Micheau, Induction optimale de l’hypothermie thérapeutique par ventilation liquidienne totale suite à un arrêt cardiaque, FFQIS, Montreal, Canada, 2016

Adler A, Fortin-Pellerin E, Nadeau M*, Vandamme J, Mousseau J, Micheau P, Sage M*, Praud JP, EIT monitoring of the liquid-ventilated lung, ICEBI & EIT, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2016.

Nadeau M*, Sage M*, Tissier R, Praud JP, Walti H, Micheau P, Optimal control of inspired Perfluorocarbon temperature to induce hypothermia by total liquid ventilation in lamb models, IEEE EMBC’16, Orlando, Florida, USA, August 2016.

Sage M*, Nadeau M*, Mousseau J*, Gullickson-Larouche E*, Dunfield R*, Robert R, Micheau P, Walti H, Complete weaning from ventilatory support after whole therapeutic lung lavage using total liquid ventilation in severe meconium aspiration syndrome, ATS 2016, San Francisco, USA, May 2016.

M Nadeau, M Sage, M Kohlhauer, R Robert, J Vandamne, J Mousseau, R Tissier, J-P Praud, H Walti et P Micheau, Liquid Ventilator for Ultrafast Hypothermia Induction in Juvenile Lambs: Preliminary Results, IEEE EMBC’15, Milan, Italy, September 2015

R. Robert, M. Nadeau, O. Avoine, J. Vandamme, J. Mousseau, M. Sage, M. Kohlhauer, J. Praud, H. Walti, R. Tissier, P. Micheau, An Advanced Liquid Ventilator Prototype for Preclinical Research in Total Liquid Ventilation, ASAIO Conference, Chicago, USA, 23-25 June 2015.

R Robert, M Nadeau, J Vandamme, O Avoine, M Sage, J-P Praud, H Walti, P Micheau, Virtual Airway Pressure and Lung Temperature Sensors in a Total Liquid Ventilation Connector, ASME 2014 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress, Montréal, Canada, November 2014.

J Mousseau, R Robert, M Nadeau, J Vandamme, J-P Praud, H Walti, P Micheau, A Mechatronic Lung Simulator to Reproduce Respiratory Mechanics in Total Liquid Ventilation, ASME 2014 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress, Montréal, Canada, November 2014.

M. Nadeau, P. Micheau, R. Robert, J. Vandamme, J. Mousseau, R Tissier, O. Avoine, PS Gemin, JP Praud, H Walti, Lumped thermal model of a patient and a liquid ventilator in total liquid ventilation, ASME 2014 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress, Montréal, Canada, November 2014.

M. Nadeau, P. Micheau, R. Robert, J. Vandamne, J. Mousseau, R. Tissier, O. Avoine, P. S. Germim, M. Sage, J.-P. Praud and H. Walti. Lumped Thermal Model of a Newborn Lamb and a Liquid Ventilator in Total Liquid Ventilation. Proceedings of The ASME IMECE, Montreal, Canada. (Novembre 2014)

J. Vandamme, P.S. Germin, R. Robert, M. Nadeau, J. Mousseau, O. Avoine, J.P. Praud, H Walti et P. Micheau, Monitoring of compliance and alveolar pressure to prevent lung overdistension during total liquid ventilation, ASME 2014 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress, abstract, Montréal, Canada, November 2014.

Kohlhauer M, Remy-Jouet I, Lidouren Fn Ricard J-D, Robert R, Barretto, Micheau P, Walti H, Carli P, Vivien B, Richard V, Mulder P, Ghaleh B, Berdeaux A, Tissier R. Ultra-fast cooling induced by total liquid ventilation limits early oxidative stress and blood brain barrier disruption after cardiac arrest. Congrès de l’American Heart Association, Chicago (USA), Novembre 2014.

O. Avoine, M. Nadeau, PS Germin, J Vandamme, J Mousseau, R Robert, JP Praud, P Micheau, H Walti, Complete weaning after total liquid ventilation in an ovine neonatal model of severe meconium aspiration syndrome, ATS conference, 16-21 may, San Diego, USA, 2014.

M. Nadeau, P. Micheau, R. Robert, O. Avoine, R. Tissier, PS Germin, and Walti H. (2013b). « Control of rapid hypothermia induction by total liquid ventilation: Preliminary results, » 35th annual int. conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medecine and Biology Society, July 3-7, 2013, Osaka, Japan.

J. Vandamme, R. Robert, P. Micheau, F. Weil, P.S. Germin, O. Avoine, J.P. Praud, Alveolar pressure estimation in total liquid ventilation during pauses impeded by tube resonance, MEMEA 2013, Ottawa, Canada, May 2013.
M Nadeau, P Micheau, R Robert, O Avoine, R Tissier, P. S. Germim, J-P Praud et H Walti, Induction ultra-rapide d’hypothermie thérapeutique modérée par ventilation liquidienne totale : Résultats préliminaires. 81e congrès de l’ACFAS. Québec, Canada, 2013.

P. Micheau et al., La ventilation liquide, JIVA2013 2e journée internationale en ventilation artificielle, Montréal, Canada, 18 mars 2013. (invité en plénière)

M. Nadeau, P. Micheau, R. Robert, O. Avoine, R. Tissier, P.S. Germin, and H. Walti. Control of rapid hypothermia induction by total liquid ventilation: Preliminary results, 35th annual international conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medecine and Biology Society, Osaka, Japan, July 2013

M. Nadeau, B. Beaudry, R. Robert, O. Avoine, J.-P. Praud, H. Walti and P. Micheau. Validation of an integrated PFC Treatment Unit for Liquid Ventilator. 7th Symposium on Liquid Ventilation and Medical Applications of Perfluorocarbons, Paris, France, May 2012

A. Beaulieu, E. Foucault, P. Braud, P. Micheau, and P. Szeger, R. Robert, H. Walti, A flowmeter for unsteady liquid flow measurements in Total Liquid Ventilation, MEMEA, Bari, Italie May 2011

R. Robert, P. Micheau, A. Beaulieu, O. Avoine, M. E. Rochon, JP Praud and H. Walti, Control of pressure ventilation modes in total liquid ventilation, Special Session on Liquid Ventilators, ICABB 2010, Venise, Italy, October 2010.

A. Beaulieu P. Micheau, R. Robert, D. Bosse , O. Avoine, M. E. Rochon, JP Praud and H. Walti, Mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during total liquid ventilation, ICABB 2010, Venice, Italy, October 2010.

H. Walti, O. Avoine, D. Bosse, B. Beaudry, A. Beaulieu, R. Albadine, JP Praud, R. Robert, and P. Micheau, Use of a new experimental total liquid ventilation device for lavaging airway in an ovine model of severe meconium aspiration syncrome, ICABB 2010, Venise, Italy, October 2010.

B. Beaudry, P. Micheau, O. Avoine, A. Beaulieu, J-P Praud, and H. Walti, Evaluation of gas oxygen exchange in total liquid ventilation with a bubble gas exchanger, ASAIO conference, Baltimore, MR, USA, May 2010.

R. Robert, P. Micheau, O. Avoine, M. Nadeau, J-P Praud, and H. Walti, Preliminary experimental validation of a pressure-regulated, volume-controlled liquid ventilation mode, ASAIO conference, Baltimore, MR, USA, May 2010.

Avoine O, Bossé D, Beaudry B, Beaulieu A, Albadine R, Praud JP, Micheau P, Walti H., Efficacy and Safety of Total Liquid Ventilation in a Severe Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Ovine Experimental Model, Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada, April 2010.

R. obert, P. Micheau, A. Beaulieu, O. Avoine and H. Walti, Two Distinct Controllers for The Pressure Regulation in Total Liquid Ventilation, MCBMS’09, Danemark, August 2009.

H. Walti, J. Lebon, R. Robert, O. Lesur, J.P. Praud and P. Micheau, Efficacy and cardiovascular consequences of total liquid ventilation (TLV) in experimental respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Europaediatrics, Nice, France, 24-28 Oct. 2008.

D. Bossé, R. Robert, J. Lebon, O. Lesur, JP Praud, P. Micheau, H. Walti, Comparison of transpulmonary and pulmonary thermodilution methods for monitoring of cardiac output during total liquid ventilation in an ovine experimental model of ARDS, 6th Inter. Symp. on Perfluorocarbon App. and Liquid Ventilation, 1 page, Montréal, Canada, september 2007.

R. Robert, P. Micheau, H. Walti, Pressure controlled ventilation mode for tidal liquid ventilator, 6th Inter. Symp. on Perfluorocarbon App. and Liquid Ventilation, 1 page, Montréal, Canada, september 2007.

R. Robert, B. Beaudry, J.P. Gauthier, A. Beaulieu, P. Patenaude, JP Praud, O. Lesur, H. Walti, P. Micheau, Development of a tidal liquid ventilator for experimental research and towards clinical research, 6th Inter. Symp. on Perfluorocarbon App. and Liquid Ventilation, 1 page, Montréal, Canada, september 2007.

R. Robert, P. Micheau, H. Walti, Optimal expiratory volume profile in TLV under steady state condition, 6th Inter. Symp. on Perfluorocarbon App. and Liquid Ventilation, 1 page, Montréal, Canada, september 2007.

R. Robert, H. Walti, J-P Praud, P. Micheau, Supervisor for the control of Tidal Liquid Ventilators with an Independant Pump System, Europeen Symposium on Perfluorocarbon Application and Liquid Ventilation, March 2006.

R. Robert, P. Micheau, J-P Praud, H. Walti, Latest System Developments for a Tidal Liquid Ventilator, Europeen Symposium on Perfluorocarbon Application and Liquid Ventilation, March 2006.

H. Walti, R. Robert, J. Lebon, O. Lesur, J-P Praud, P. Micheau, Accuracy of Hemodynamic Monitoring Using Thermodilution During Total Liquid Ventilation (TLV), Europeen Symposium on Perfluorocarbon Application and Liquid Ventilation, March 2006.

R. Robert, P. Micheau, S. Cyr, O. Lesur, J-P Praud, H. Walti, Liquid ventilation: preliminary results on healthy lambs using an innovative tidal liquid ventilator, Can Resp J Vol 12 No 3, April 2005. [YI Forum]

R. Robert, P. Micheau, S. Cyr, G. Drolet, O. Lesur, J-P. Praud, H. Walti, Innovative Developments for a Time-Cycled, Volume-Controlled, Pressure Limited TLV Ventilator, 19th International Workshop on surfactant replacement, Vienna, 2004.

P. Micheau, M. Mazouzi, S. Cyr, R. Robert, Learning Control of a Pump Used in a Liquid Ventilator, T-Tu-M01, 15th World Congress of the IFAC, Barcelonna, 21-26 july, 2002.